POLICIES AND REGULATIONS ON GAP AND GHP IMPLEMENTATION
FOR IMPROVING FRUIT AND VEGETABLES PRODUCT SAFETY
Dr. Yul Harry Bahar
Executive Secretary for Directorate General of Horticulture
Ministry of Agriculture of the Republic of Indonesia
Indonesia already has policies and regulations on Good Agriculture Practices and Good Hygiene Practices (GAP and GHP) for improving safety of fruit and vegetables. This paper describes in detail the various policies and regulations which have been implemented by the Indonesian government in relation to agricultural food safety. It also describes the implementation activities being done to fully sustain the said policies.
Keywords: Fruit and vegetables, food safety, GAP, GHP, sustainable agriculture
Horticulture is one of the prominent and important natural resources which has many functions and offers different kinds of products. It has high diversity of crops and products which comprise of fruit, vegetables, medicinal crops, floriculture, various mushrooms, aquatic plant in different specific molds. Horticulture can be utilized to support and generate many kinds of businesses, as well as environmental and social activities for the improvement of the human welfare and generate farmers’/growers’ economic situation.
Since there a lot of horticultural, species, characteristics and varieties, it can now be used as direct food resource, raw materials for manufacture of food, medicinal and herbal crops, and aesthetic and ornamental crops. Below are the major various functions of horticulture:
1. Act as a source of carbohydrates, proteins, fats, and fiber for food;
2. Act as a main source of vitamins, minerals, enzymes, hormones, anti-oxidants, and a good source of specific natural active element for medicinal and human health;
3. Supports the protection and improvement of the environment and helps mitigate its harmful environmental impacts;
4. Supports the cultural and religious events and activities through its various important components; and
5. Improves the condition of living environment—its aesthetic, freshness and overall beauty.
Fruit and vegetables are the main group of horticulture which can be utilized as fresh products for consumption or as processed foods. About eight million of Indonesian farmers are related to the fruit and vegetables business, therefore the Ministry of Agriculture has been paying much attention to the development of these commodities. Many kinds of activities and facilities have been done for the development of the fruit and vegetable industry, such as provision of technical guidance on production development, improvement of management system, improvement of the seedling system and industries, pest and disease control, mitigation of environmental impacts, strengthening the farmer’s institution, intensification of promotion and education, etc. Such fruit and vegetable development activities have been planned, managed and directed through integrated, efficient, sustainable and environmentally friendly approaches.
There are 60 kinds of fruits and 80 kinds of vegetables which are mandated by the Directorate General of Horticulture to be developed. However, only 26 kinds of fruit and 25 kinds of vegetables have been recorded for data compilation. Based on the 2013 data, fruit production was recorded at 1,8288 279 tons, and harvesting area was 82,9563 Ha. Meanwhile vegetable production was recorded at 11, 558, 449 tons, and harvesting area was 1, 099 846 Ha. On average, during the last five years, fruit production and harvesting area increased to about 0.31% and 1.21%, respectively. Meanwhile, vegetable production and harvesting area increased to about 2.13% and 0.52%, respectively. In general, Table 1 summarizes the performance of the fruit and vegetable production and harvesting areas over the last five years.
Table 1. Performance of the fruits and vegetable production and harvesting areas
MOA has decided that the implementation of GAP and GHP for fruits and vegetables are very much important in order to increase production, and improve the quality and performance of the product. By implementation of GAP and GHP, the products can meet the market and consumption demand as well as meet the agreement with other countries (including AEC). The objectives, of fruit and vegetable GAP-GHP implementation are:
1. Increase the production, productivity and quality of the products as well as improve the competitiveness of horticultural products;
2. Improve the efficiency and optimum use of natural resources, including the implementation of sustainable agricultural development system;
3. Decrease the production losses and increase product durability;
4. Provide good quality food and improve product safety for consumers;
5. Improve the working safety and health of the farmers and workers
Aside from the reference to Horticulture Laws, the Ministry of Agriculture has formulated some policies, rules and regulations, and programs in order to lead and guide the GAP and the GHP implementation. Some activities related to fruit and vegetables GAP and GHP implementation have also been addressed to guide and assist the farmers, growers, businessmen working in horticulture, etc
RULES AND REGULATIONS
Indonesia has already had the special law on horticulture development, that is Law No. 13 in 2010 concerning Horticulture (famous as Horticulture Law). This law is the fundamental regulation and it should be used as basic reference on the formulation of policies, rules, programs and activities on horticultural development.
Some rules of horticultural development stated in these laws which are directed to GAP and GHP implementation for improving fruit and vegetables product safety, and directly linked to horticultural development are as follows:
1. Horticulture cluster development
Horticulture development should be carried out through cluster approach (at the national, provincial and district levels, respectively) by considering and referring to land used development plan, by provision of facilities and infrastructure, and by provision, facilitation and support to the horticulture businessmen. The program and activities in the stated horticulture should also be carried out through integrated approach and also by involving people’s participation.
2. Implementation of GAP
Horticulture cultivation and farming should be carried out by considering and applying the Good Agriculture Practices (GAP) method and principles, besides considering the market demand, efficiency, competitiveness, environmental functions and local wisdom.
3. Implementation of GHP
Harvesting and postharvest handling should be carried out by implementing the good harvesting and postharvest handling practices (GHP). The postharvest handling activities should also be carried out in the horticulture packing house.
4. Environmentally friendly horticulture agribusiness
Horticulture development should be implemented through environmentally friendly principles and should consider local wisdom. Horticulture land preparation activities must emphasize the sustainable of environmental function, and should be done by utilizing the environmentally friendly tools, inputs and machineries.
5. Horticulture inputs and facilities
Utilization of horticulture inputs and facilities (such as seedlings, fertilizers, growth control materials, pest control materials, tools and machineries) should apply the technology which has already considered the local specific climate and land conditions, promotion of environmentally friendly products, more emphasis on the utilization of domestic products which should meet high quality standards.
6. Integrated horticulture development
Horticulture development is more emphasized as integrated farming approach through mixing with other crops and/or integrated with other related business. The government will encourage and give priority facilitation to the farmers, growers or farmers group who carried out the integrated horticulture agribusiness.
7. Prominent horticulture commodities and products
The government and/or local government should decide the prominent horticulture commodities and product which should have high competitiveness and the selection should also consider the local wisdom of the people who develop those commodities and products.
8. Business partnership development
Horticulture agribusiness should be implemented through partnership pattern by involving the micro, small, medium and large-scale horticulture enterprises. Business partnership pattern can be implemented through; nucleus estate smallholders (NESH), sub-contract, general trading, franchise, product distribution and marketing agencies cooperation, and other partnership models.
9. Increasing the consumption level
The government and local government are able to support the increasing number of people’s consumption level; decide putting fruit and vegetable as prominent crops, decide the consumption level targets, as well as involve the horticultural aspect on the education curricula in various school levels.
As a follow up to the direction as stated in the Horticulture Law, some Minister of Agriculture Decrees related to Horticulture GAP and GHP implementation were formulated and released. Such decrees are as follows:
1. Minister of Agriculture Decree, No 60 in 2006 concerning “Guidelines for Good Agriculture Practices for Fruit”, this decree is not used anymore, because it was revised and improved to become Minister of Agriculture Decree no 48 in 2009
2. Minister of Agriculture Decree No 48 in 2009 concerning the “Guidelines for Good Agriculture Practices for Fruit and Vegetables”.
3. Minister of Agriculture Decree No 62 in 2010 concerning “Guidelines for Application Method of Farm Land and Field Registration System on Fruit and Vegetables Good Agriculture Practices (GAP) Implementation”.
4. Minister of Agriculture Decree No 73 in 2013 concerning “Guidelines for Horticulture Good Handling Practices and Horticulture Packing House Management”.
The regulation of GAP and GHP for fruit and vegetables are relatively new, even though they have been initiated several years ago. GAP has been implemented since 2008, while GHP has been in existence since 2012, both of them are not mandatory. The implementation has been socialized, learned and carried out gradually in some production areas. So far the GAP-GHP implementation are mostly emphasized to the selected targets, and are as follows:
1. Growers, farmers group and farmers who supply the products to supermarkets, hypermarkets, modern markets, hotels, restaurants or for exports purposes.
2. Growers, farmers group and farmers who supply the raw materials for factories or industries.
3. Farmers’ groups or union of farmers’ groups or farmers’ cooperatives who receive the facilities, aid and assistance from the government and local government program and budget.
Some activities which have been done to encourage the GAP implementation of fruit and vegetables are:
1. Socialization of the GAP guidelines to the extension workers, farmers, farmers’ groups, growers and other stakeholders;
2. Conducting Training of Trainers (TOT) on GAP guidelines to the technical staff (at central, provincial and district levels), field extension workers, and the field pest control observers;
3. Formulation of Standard Operation Procedures (SOPs) on the GAP implementation which was made based on specific location and commodities;
4. Conducting Training for Farm Registration Auditors concerning the “Guidelines for Application Method of Farm Land and Field Registration System” on Fruit and Vegetables Good Agriculture Practices (GAP) Implementation;
5. Conducting GAP Implementation Field School in selected production cluster areas and the selected commodities;
6. Carry out the demonstration plot and pilot project on GAP Implementation in some selected production cluster areas and selected commodities;
7. Provision of technical assistance and extension to the target groups on GAP implementation; and
8. Provision and aid the farm facilitation (farming inputs and extension material) for farmers and farmers’ groups who have applied the GAP.
Some activities have also been carried out to encourage the fruit and vegetables GHP Implementation. They are as follows :
1. Socialization of the GHP guidelines to the extension workers, farmers, farmers’ groups, growers and other stakeholders;
2. Conducting Training of Trainers (TOT) on GHP guidelines to the technical staff (at central, provincial and district levels), field extension workers, and field pest control observers;
3. Carrying out the demonstration plot and pilot project on GHP Implementation in some selected production cluster areas and the selected commodities;
4. Provision of technical assistance and extension to the target groups on GHP implementation;
5. Provision and aid of post harvest handling facilitation (tools, machineries and extension materials) for farmers and farmers’ groups who have applied the GHP; and
6. Conducting the intensive promotion of fruit which have already been carried in the GAP and GHP to the traders, industry and consumers.
In order to strengthen and support fruit and vegetables GAP and GHP implementation, so that some facilitation and incentives have been given to the growers, horticulture farmers and farmers groups, who have already carried out the GAP and GHP Implementation. Some kind of facilitation and incentives are as follows:
1. Provision of assistance and aid (grant basis) consisting of production inputs (seeds, fertilizers, etc), farm tools and machineries, shading nets, post harvest handling tools, packing houses, warehouses, etc.;
2. Obtaining Certification Number on Registration of GAP Implementation for the vegetable farm land and fruits estate land free of charge;
3. Obtaining Certification Number of Packing House Registration on the packing house which already conducted the GHP Implementation free of charge; and
4. Provision of reward/appreciation and Incentives to the growers, farmers, champion and farmers’ groups.
5. Promoting fruits and vegetables products which already carry out the GAP and GHP to the traders and consumers; and
6. Conducting the training and comparison studies for the champion, technical staff and field extension workers, to the advanced growers which already carried out the GAP and GHP, event comparative study abroad (Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand)
As result of the horticulture development program and activities conducted in the various production centers and clusters, so far, many of fruit estate land and vegetable farm land which have already been well implemented through the GAP, and also many of them have been registered by the respective Provincial Agriculture Services office, and coordinated by DG Horticulture, and furthermore they got the register number certificate of GAP. Total number of GAP registered for fruit estate land and vegetables farm land shown in the Table 2 as follows:
Table 2. Number of GAP registered for fruit estate land and vegetables farm land
Number of horticulture growers or producers who got the GAP certification are still limited, since 2009 to 2013, the total number of GAP certification released are 506 units. The limited numbers due to the growers or producers have to pay to get the GAP certification, and most of them said the payment is expensive (compared to the GAP-GHP registration which is free of charge). On the other hand, the customers said that the GAP-GHP registration is enough for them. Total number of GAP Certification for horticulture products shown in Table 3 are as follows:
Table 3. Number of GAP certification for horticulture grower and producers
PROBLEMS AND CONSTRAINTS
1. Mostly the GAP-GHP implementation as well as GAP Registration and Certification are conducted at the production centers and clusters in Java and Bali remove space, other provinces are not so much well-attended and not so seriously conducted.
2. Not enough or low price incentives and appreciation for GAP registered farms and GAP certified products, it means the consumers and costumers’ respect for the products which have already been implemented by the GAP and GHP are not so good.
3. Difficulties to change the paradigm and habits of the farmers/growers/producers as well as farmers’ groups and cooperatives in conducting farm recording, (while recording is very much important component of GAP-GHP), especially the conduct of product traceability.
4. Limited GAP Field Schools, demonstration plots, pilot project activities due to limited support and budget allocated to the Directorate General of Horticulture. Meanwhile, support and cooperation with the related agencies and private sectors are also limited.
5. Under the Ministry of Agriculture, the horticulture commodities development is not the prominent and priority sector as well as limited supporting activities by the other related institution (they are also mostly emphasized on food crops development).
Indonesia paid attention and seriously supported the implementation of fruits and vegetables GAP, it has begun since several years ago (2006), the event on the implementation has conducted gradually and not as mandatory basis. Some important rules and regulations related to GAP and GHP were formulated and realized, in terms of horticulture law, several Minister of Agriculture decrees, implementation guidelines and SOP. Meanwhile, the Ministry of agriculture (c.q Directorate General of Horticulture) policies for supporting the implementation of the GAP and GHP have carried out some program and activities in the horticulture production centers and clusters, such us; training, extension, field schools, facilitation and grand aid, product promotion, appreciation to the producers, etc. the result of GAP implementation shows a lot and the increasing number of fruit estate land and vegetable farm land which got the certificate of GAP Registration Number. Meanwhile the GAP certification and horticulture packing house registration are still limited. Improvement and support to the implementation of fruits and vegetable GAP and GHP are still very much important and required. Coordination among institutions and integration among the activities should be done in order to accelerate and broaden the GAP-GHP implementation.
Anonymous, 2009. Minister of Agriculture Decrees no 48/Permentan/OT.140/10/2009 concerning on “Guideline for Good Agriculture Practices for Fruit and Vegetables”, Ministry of Agriculture of the Republic Indonesia, Jakarta.
Anonymous, 2010. The Law No 13 in 2010 concerning on Horticulture. Ministry of Law and Human Right of the Republic Indonesia, Jakarta.
Anonymous, 2010. Minister of Agriculture Decrees no 62/Permentan/OT.140/10/2010 concerning on “Guideline for Application Method of Farm Land and Field Registration System on Fruit and Vegetables Good Agriculture Practices (GAP)”, Ministry of Agriculture of the Republic Indonesia, Jakarta.
Anonymous, 2013. Minister of Agriculture Decrees no 73/Permentan/OT.140/9/2013 concerning on “Guideline for Horticulture Good Handling Practices (GHP) and Horticulture Packing House Management”, Ministry of Agriculture of the Republic Indonesia, Jakarta.