- Eco-friendly fish farm management and safe aquaculture production
- II. Traceability and Supply Chain Management for Cage Culture Industry in Taiwan — the Case of Cobia
The cage culture has been developed for more than 20 years since 1975 in the shallow waters off Peng-Hu. The cage culture policy of Taiwan went through a drastic change due to the economic evolution. In 2004, the total area for cage culture was 1,026,887.5 M3; the total production and tvalue was 5,417 MT and NT$1,016,866,000  respectively. The operation of cage culture activities is being mainly concentrated in the Peng-Hu and Ping-Tung Prefecture. According to the floating collar system, the types of cage may be divided into traditional semi-flexible system, flexible system and submergible system. The main cultured species include Cobia (Rachycentron canadum), Red Sea Bream (Pagrus major), Grouper (Epinephelus malabaricus), Red Drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), and Amberjack (Seriola dumerili). Concerning the economic efficiency and biological evaluation, the Cobia is the future star of Taiwan cage culture.   .
With the limited water and soil resources in Taiwan, cage culture has become significant to the aquaculture in Taiwan. With Taiwan's accession into the World Trade Organization (WTO), we need to put emphasis on the important issues in the cage culture industry in order to face the trade liberalization.
The epidemic disease invasion will follow this era of digitization spreading from local or overseas and it may result the increasing challenges in the open market of agricultural product and may also result in the improper usage of medicines. Additionally, it imposes threats on the consumers' health and their confidence in our aquaculture products. It may require us to establish the management of traditional cage culture industry as well as levering application information management tool. Promote Good Aquaculture Practicey (GAP) certification procedure, the examination certification system, an electronic traceability and supply chain management system are expected to be established in Cobia cage culture. By these approaches, we may meet the urgent needs of international trade on improving tractability of fishery product and may satisfy the demand of information transparency. The current framework of Cobia cage culture traceability and supply chain management in Taiwan is showed as figure 1.
In order to probe into the information management of Cobia cage culture in Taiwan, the establishment supply chain pattern is the priority work which includes supplier of raw material and drugs, feed factory, broodstock farm, breeding farm, grow-up farm, logistic, storage, food processing, shipment, retail sales, restaurant and consumer . Each stage has its unique product packing type and transmission ships way.
The feed manufacturers will send the product to broodstock farms, breeding farms and grow-up farms. The types of feed package include small and big bags, giant hundred-ton stack board. Alternatively, the product may be shipped by bulk way.
The brood-stock farm aims to sell fertilized fish eggs to breeding farms. Some preparations are conducted by the broodstock farms before delivering to breeding farms, that are, the egg quality grading, the packing with trunk or box and so on. Afterwards, the broodstock farms transport the fertilized eggs to the breeding farms by air or land delivery.
The breeding farm, the location of breed hatching, receives and preserves fish eggs. By implementing some operations, the eggs can be fertilized. When the eggs enter into the raising phase, they will be delivered to grow-up farms. Finally, the breeding farm delivers the juvenile fish by the stable boat ship to the grow-up farms.
The juvenile fishes are raised in the grow-up farm stage. The adult fishes are also transferred by trough loading, case loading or firm boat ship from a grow-up form to a processing site.
The fishery products, in this stage, will be processed through cutting, adding salt and boiling. Afterwards, the fishery products are packaged and being transported to a processing manufacturing site through sea, land or air delivery. Alternatively, the product can be directly sold after being packaged. The tapes of package — box and stack board package — will be decided by fishery products supplier.
In this stage, the wholesaler is responsible for the purchase and the sale. They trade the aquatic product to other enterprises or the consumer. They also practise raw materials or products trade in each stage of the supply chain.
The retailers will trade the aquatic products to the general consumers instead of other enterprise systems. The nature of the fishery products may also be changed by the retailers¡]such as eliminating the internal organs, the depilation, fries and so on¡^ before consumers' purchase. The products may also be packaged into small packs or be ready to eat.
The consumer purchases and eats fishery product directly.
The lead-in tool for Cobia cage culture traceability and supply chain management is EAN.UCC., which inputs data to the computer in every stage of the supply chain, and then forms a traceability system. By the information exchange, bar code label and industrial information manage the platform correlation, it may automatically monitor product real flow , and may deliver the path with record product system, and constitution traceability and supply chain management system . The systematic insertions way are described as follows.
Step 1: To specify the fishery products code and name; that is, providing Global Trade Item Number¡]GTIN¡^and Global Location Number¡]GLN¡^for product and farm code only. GTIN is functioned as the foundation of the product identification with Fisheries Agency's species code. It is regarded as fishery product code number (Table 1) by the Fisheries Agency. The GLN code is basically, according to GAP, used as an address code of feeding farm (see Table 2).
Classification Code¡GDepending on the origin of product (culture, catch¡^or product types (egg, brook-stock, whole fish, unpreserved, frozen, processing…) to define the code.
Fish Species Code¡GThe combination with Fisheries Agency fish type code and FAO Fish type code to define the code.
Fishery Party Classification Code: Depending on Fishery party character such as farm, processing factory, Bfeed factory etc. (1244 and 1245 stand for Fishery Farm).
Farm Code: serial number stand for different farm.
Step 2: After the code and name of fishery products is melting, we may use the encoding method, EAN-128, that is, to add those data including the production batch number, serial number, net weight, quantity, date and so on. It can form the fishery products bar code label (see Figure 2).
Step 3: After completing the code work, it must implement the operational procedure automatically by recording product data, establishing the automatic management and catching the electron data processing. The advantage is that it can track and traces the position of products and its situation in the supplying chain.
The overhead construction at present is the framework for Cobia cage culture traceability and Supply Chain management inducts, including (1) fishery product production management system: The detailed content includes Cobia GAP management system and Cultivation enterprise ERP management system. (2)The correlation management system in the supply chain: The detailed content embraces the feed management system, the fish market management system, the processing management system and the fishery market sale management system. (3) Food security and hygienic management system: The detailed content includes the inspection management system and the disease announcement management system. (4) Fishing politics management and inquiry system: The detailed content, that is, the content management system, the statistical analysis system and the production resume system.
Through these management systems, the operator in every stage of the supply chain may keep the record of the required information.
In order to achieve the spirit of "From Farm to Table", the Cobia cage culture traceability and supply chain management are derived from the spirit of the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) and formulation GAP management. The goal conforms to the production responsibility, the independent management, and food security. At present, the examination operation is conducted by the professor organization formed by the Taiwan Fishery Economy Development Association. The organization is divided into a national examination professor group and regional examination professor group. The professors are expected to carry out examination in the different stages of the Cobia cage culture supply chain. The examinations of the Cobia cage culture traceability and Supply Chain management are as follows: (1) Feed production & Culture production stage: Who produce feed? Who supply feed? (2) Culture production & Testing analysis stage: Who supply larvae? What kind of feed used? Process record? Medicine management? Dispatch to whom? (3) Testing analysis and Transport: Shipment (stage) When, where sampling? Analysis report? (4) Transport: Shipment? and Processing? Pack (stage) Who transport? Logisticplace? Logistic way? (5) Processing (Pack) and Sale (Consume) stage: Who process (Pack)? Product type? Delivery to Whom? (6) Sale (Consume) stage: Who sales? What kind of way? When to sale?
Due to the links between product bar code label and supply chain management system, it may provide more precise basic record of materials for Cobia cage culture quickly. Therefore, this research applies to the data from this system and can present the analysis of produce cost. Meanwhile, Using Likert scale , it can design questionnaire survey and carry on the investigation of the traceability and the supply chain management in each stage for Cobia cage culture. Finally, using Porter's competitive strategy to examine the development and competitiveness of cage culture in Taiwan  . Empirical results are described as follows (Fig. 3):
Nevertheless, it may be necessary to take into account the losses caused by typhoon, low temperature and thieves. Hence, it is suggested that the industry should reduce the cost of fry, feed and salary for the purpose of changing the statue from profit balance to competitive ability  . The cost of Cobia cage culture by item shows as Table 3.
Based on the internal environmental analysis and the principle of the value chain, we suggest that cobia farmer should invest on both the sales and the interflow of commodities to make a complete value chain of "production", "manufacture", and "sale".
There are several advantages that can be found through the establishment of the traceability and supply chain management system. (1) Producers: One can find the problems and can provide consultation through the examination conducted by the examination team. At the same time, the producers can obtain more systematic production record data about production cost analysis and management. On the other hand, because of the GAP with distinguish characteristics, the producer can set up higher price and can acquire the consumer confidence. (2) Logistical can grasp more information to modify the marketing strategy, to reduce the management cost and to promote the quality of managing. (3) The Cobia industry can achieve the well-sound production and marketing systems to regulate with planned production. When facing problems, it can reduce industry's risk with the traceability to pinpoint the problematic products and to distinguish responsibility effectively. (4) Consumer can increase consumption confidence and reduce the consumption risks through the Internet to have enquiries about the relevant producing and selling information immediately.
The authors would like to thank the Fishery Agency Council of Agriculture of the Republic of China in Taiwan for financially supporting this research under Contract No. 93AS-9.2.3-FA-F1.
Figure 1 Framework of Cobia Cage Culture Traceability and Supply Chain Management in Taiwan
Table 2 GLN Rule of Aquaculture Farm-Case by Tan-Hou Ocean Development Co. LTD.
Figure 2 The Bar Code for Cobia Cage Culture
Table 1 Gtin Rule for Fishery Products-Case by Cobia
Figure 3 The Competition of Cage Culture
Table 3 The Cost of Cage Culture by Item
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