Food and Fertilizer Technology Center - publications

Nov. 01, 2016

Integration of climate change adaptation and mitigation measures for small-scale rice cultivation

Integration of climate change adaptation and mitigation measures for small-scale rice cultivation

Climate change poses unprecedented challenges to agriculture because agriculture is both its culprit and a casualty. Man-made greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions contribute to climate change and global warming. While fossil consumption is the primary cause of global GHG emissions, agricultural activities including crop and livestock production, forestry and associated land use practices, are also responsible for a significant fraction of emissions, up to 30%, according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. On the other hand, climate variability, particularly with respect to increasing temperatures and changing rainfall patterns, is a major concern for small-scale farmers in the developing world, because climate change as manifested by increased carbon emissions and extreme weather elements threatens the stability of agricultural production. Climate change is related to crop failures, fishery collapses and livestock deaths. These are already causing economic losses and undermining food security and are likely to become more severe as global warming continues and frequency of climate events increases.

This workshop, which was held in Tsukuba, Japan was participated in by rice scientists and weather experts who shared their knowledge on adaptation and mitigation measures on rice cultivation in the midst of climate change. Scientific studies were presented showing field trials in relation to weather data, crop models and climate change impacts. Discussions focused mainly on integration measures being conducted by various countries regarding climate change mitigation efforts for rice-based agriculture.

Major findings and recommendations:

  • Conduct long-term field trials and collect weather data on specific sites;
  • Evaluate the collected field trial and weather data. Calibrate the multi-crop models at each site with at least three-year data;
  • Run the simulations with the multi-crop models to feature the impacts of climate change on rice production with current conventional practices;
  • Engage in collaborative and simulation studies with the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP); and
  • Maximize possible network opportunities to tackle climate-related issues. Some of these are the Global Research Alliance on Agricultural Greenhouse Gases (GRA); FAO-Regional Rice Initiative; Asia Soil Partnership (ASP); International Nitrogen Initiative (INI), etc..

Integration of climate change adaptation and mitigation measures for small-scale rice cultivation

Held in Tsukuba, Japan 26-28 August, 2015    
No. of participating countries:  7 (Japan, Korea, Thailand, Philippines, Taiwan, Vietnam)
No. of papers presented: 9
No. of participants: 7 speakers and 20 local observers
Co-organizers: Monsoon Asia Agro-Environmental Research Consortium (MARCO)
    National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences (NIAES)

List of papers
Resource papers

1.    Assessment of climate change impacts on irrigation water requirement and rice yield: a case study from Ngamoeyeik irrigation project in Myanmar
    -    Sangam Shrestha
2.    Multiple cropping scenarios based on local climate and growth of dryland rice against regional climate change in stabilizing agricultural production (case study in South Central Java rainfed agriculture)
    -    Bayu Dwi Apri Nugroho
3.    Re-development of the DSSAT model using C++ for facilitation of large data processing
    -    Kwang-Soo Kim
4.    Simulating climate change impact on rice yield in Malaysia using DSSAT 4.5: shifting planting date as an adaptation strategy
    -    A.T. Shaidatul Azdawiyah
5.    Projection of rice yield in the 21st century in South Korea under RCP 8.5 scenario using a mechanistic crop model
    -    Jun-Whan Kim
6.    The risk analysis for rice production due to agro-climate change in Taiwan
    -    Ya-Wen Chiueh
7.    Biochar-based technologies for enhanced productivity, efficiency, resilience and adaptive capacity or smallholder rice-based farming communities in the Philippines
    -    Ricardo Orge
8.    Strategies of adaptation and mitigation for coping with climate change: from aspects of Taiwan agriculture
    -    Satoiru Ishikawa
9.    Impacts of climate change on rice production in the Red river and Mekong river delta of Vietnam
    -    Tran Van The
    -    Sovuthy Pheav

For further information, contact Dr. George Kuo, FFTC consultant

Participants to the “MARCO symposium 2015: next challenges of agro-environmental research in monsoon Asia.” FFTC, Marco and NIAES sponsored seven speakers from Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Thailand, Philippines, Taiwan and Vietnam.

As weather systems all over the world continue to mess up and the demand for agricultural production increases significantly, researchers strongly feel that there is a need to closely collaborate and face the emerging problems that go with climate change on rice-based agriculture.

Dr. Kazuyuki Yagi (middle), Research Coordinator of the National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences (NIAES) discusses agri and climate change issues with FFTC Deputy Director Takashi Nagai (L) and FFTC Consultant Dr. George Kuo.

Dr. Kazuyuki Yagi delivers his presentation on “Greenhouse Gas Mitigation in Irrigated Rice Paddies in Southeast Asia (MIRSA)”  a project launched in 2013 funded by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries of Japan.

Dr. Huu Sheng Lur, Director General of Taiwan’s Department of Science and Technology, Council of Agriculture, delivers a message at the opening of the conference in Tsukuba, Japan. FFTC, MARCO and NIAES joined forces to organize this workshop.

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