Food and Fertilizer Technology Center - publications

Dec. 24, 2009

Management of Citrus Greening for the Rehabilitation of the Citrus Industry in Asia

Citrus is today one of the most imporant fruit crops in Asian, especially for millions of the region's rural poor. However, the spread of Huanglongbing (HLB), also known as citrus greening, and other virus diseases such as citrus tristeza closterovirus (CTV), citrus tatter leaf capillovirus (CTLV), and citrus exocortis viroid (CEV) have long been seriously threatening the region's citrus industry. These systemic diseases can only be controlled effectively through an integrated management approach involving: precise and rapid disease indexing; cultivating pathogen-free seedlings and establishing pathogen-free nursery system; eliminating inoculum sources; and preventing secondary spread by vectors.

A major survey project initiated by FFTC in the last decade revealed that many serious systemic diseases have a much wider distribution in Asia than had been previously reported. Of these, HLB or citrus greening is the most destructive especially in tropical and subtropical regions like southeast and east Asia. The survey, which launched FFTC's long-term commitment to rehabilitate the region's citrus industry, was followed by a series of workshops and training courses. Information about the diagnosis and indexing of plant viruses using new molecular techniques developed by the National Taiwan University (NTU) was disseminated. DNA primers and antibodies were provided to national laboratories in the region, and a demonstration project was established in Vietnam on the management of disease-free citrus orchard.

Continuing Commitment to Rehabilitate Asia's Citrus Industry

While considerable gains have been achieved under FFTC's initiatives in the past, the Center believes that efforts must continue progressively if the goal is to wipe out major citrus diseases that are considered a truly limiting factor for citrus production in Asia. Hence, FFTC organized the international workshop on the Management of Citrus Greening and Virus Diseases for the Rehabilitation of the Citrus Industry in Asia held in Hanoi, Vietnam on September 8-12, 2008, in coordination with the Plant Protection Research Institute (PPRI), Vietnam and the National Institute of Fruit Tree Science (NIFTS), Japan.

The workshop was participated in by 15 speakers from 11 countries (Australia, Brazil, Cambodia, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Philippines, Taiwan, Thailand, USA, and Vietnam) and about 30 local participants. Primarily, the activity aimed to provide a forum among scientists and extension workers to: gain a better understanding of the current status of citrus greening and virus disease occurrence in the region and the corresponding management initiatives in each participating country; and collect and exchange new technological information to help scientists and extension workers develop a holistic management approach for citrus greening and other virus diseases.

Key Components of a Holistic Approach to Combat Citrus Greening

Some countries are more advanced in terms of implementing a holistic management approach to combat citrus greening, while some are still in the level of consolidating a mix of best practices aimed at coming up with sustainable and effective measures against the disease. Four key steps, however, are common among the participating countries: a) Rapid detection and removal of infected trees; b) Controlling the vector, Diaphorina citri; c) Mass production/cultivation of HLB-free seedlings and establishment of pathogen-free seedling nurseries; and d) Healthy management of pathogen-free seedlings.

Rapid detection is the first important step, and can be done through such methods as: visual (field) detection of infected trees; rapid and accurate quick field test; and laboratory analysis for indexing and detection of causal agents (PCR, ICAN, LAMP, etc.). Removal of infected trees involves cutting down of infected trees, pesticide/herbicide application of trees and root system, and follow-up surveys to continuously monitor the presence of the disease. Controlling the vector, Diaphorina citri, constitutes systematic field surveys to gather ecological information for effective timing of control, and effective pesticide application. Finally, mass production and cultivation of HLB-free seedlings and establishment of pathogen-free seedling nurseries are essential in sustaining efforts to rehabilitate citrus orchards. This can be achieved through the production of pathogen-free seedlings by micro-grafting, and the establishment of screenhouse for mass production of pathogen-free seedlings to ensure stable supply for the growers.

Recommendations and Future Perspectives

In controlling the spread of HLB and in rehabilitating disease-infected orchards, strong government support is a critical factor, together with the full cooperation of all stakeholders in the citrus industry, especially the growers/farmers. Scientific efforts in terms of diagnosis, investigation, field survey, and laboratory analysis to establish control measures against HLB must be pursued, as well as a strong education and training campaign among growers, together with action programs and cohesive coordination of efforts by the national and local governments. A management control package that is both economically and environmentally sustainable must also be initiated by the government, together with funding and logistics support for the mass production of pathogen-free seedlings with a certification system.

Likewise, a strong government regulation on the movement of host plants must be in place. Meanwhile, the scientific community must continue to address and explore the following areas: prevention of new infections through pesticide use; effective insecticide application as compared to symptomatic tree elimination; developing rapid and cost-efficient field diagnosis; and understanding other factors affecting the spread of vectors/diseases (temperature, wind, etc.).

Over the years, FFTC's international technical cooperation program aimed at rehabilitating Asia's citrus industry considerably promoted the transfer/sharing of technology on HLB detection and diagnosis, production of pathogen-free seedlings, and various techniques to prevent outbreaks of citrus greening. In essence, the significant results of these initiatives serve as a proof of the value of, and the need to continue, international technical cooperation for the mutual benefit of developed and developing countries in the Asian region.

International Workshop on Management of Citrus Greening and Virus Diseases for the Rehabilitation of the Citrus Industry in the Aspac Region

Held in PPRI, Hanoi, Vietnam, September 08-12, 2008

No. of participating countries: 11 (Australia, Brazil, Cambodia, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Philippines, Taiwan, Thailand, USA, Vietnam)

No. of papers presented: 15

No. of participants: 15 speakers, and about 20 local participants/observers

Co-sponsors: National Institute of Fruit Tree Sciences (NIFTS), Japan; Plant Protection Research Institute (PPRI), Vietnam

List of Papers Keynote Paper

  • 1. Rehabilitation of HLB-damaged citrus industry in Taiwan and South-east Asia: diagnosis and indexing, and production of pathogen-free seedlings
  • - Hong-Ji Su, National Taiwan University (NTU), Taipei, Taiwan ROC

Resource Papers

  • 2. Analysis of nucleotide sequence variation of citrus greening organism and application for rapid and sensitive detection from infected citrus
  • - Toru Iwanami, NIFTS, Japan
  • 3. Present status of Huanglongbing and citrus psyllid vector in Florida
  • - Susan E. Halbert, Florida Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services, USA
  • 4. Time and pest density dependent increase of CG infestation and chemical control strategy of the vector psyllid
  • - Katsuya Ichinose, Okinawa Subtropical Station, Japan International Research Centre for Agricultural Sciences (JIRCAS)
  • 5. Australia and Huanglongbing
  • - G.A.C. Beattie, Centre for Plant and Food Science, University of Western Sydney, Australia
  • 6. Prospect and challenge of rehabilitation of citrus industry in Vietnam
  • - Ha Minh Trung, VACVINA Central Committee, Vietnam; and Ngo Vinh Vien, PPRI Vietnam

Country Reports

  • 7. Management of citrus greening in Brazil
  • - Silvio Aparecido Lopes, Fund for Defense of the Citriculture (Fundecitrus), Brazil
  • 8. Current status of HLB epidemic, and establishment of pathogen-free citrus foundation and seedling production
  • - Vung Setha, Royal University of Agriculture, Cambodia
  • 9. Research progress and management of HLB and other citrus diseases in Indonesia
  • - Siti Subandiyah, Gadjah Mada University, Indonesia
  • 10. Practices for controlling citrus greening in Okinawa, Japan
  • - Nami Uechi, Citrus Greening Research Program, NIFTS, Japan
  • 11. Current status of HLB epidemic in Malaysia and its rehabilitation of damaged orchards
  • - Lily Eng, Agricultural Research Centre, Sarawak, Malaysia
  • 12. Status of the Huanglongbing rehabilitation initiatives in the Philippines
  • - Juliet M. Ochasan, Baguio National Crop Research and Development Center, Philippines
  • 13. Ecology and vectorship of citrus psyllid in relation to the prevalence of citrus HLB disease in Taiwan
  • - Shih-Cheng Hung, Chiayi Agricultural Experiment Branch, Agricultural Research Institute, COA, Taiwan ROC
  • 14. Status and integrated management of citrus HLB in Thailand
  • - Wanphen Srithongchai, Plant Protection Research and Development Office, Department of Agriculture, Thailand
  • 15. Integrated management of citrus HLB disease in the Southern Vietnam
  • - Le Thi Thu Hong, Nguyen Thi Ngoc Truc, Nguyen Van Hoa and Nguyen Minh Chau, Southern Fruit Research Institute (SFRI), Vietnam

For further information, contact:

Dr. Hong-Ji Su and Dr. Te-Yeh Ku, FFTC Technical Consultants

Index of Images

  • Figure 1 (Below) Taiwan's citrus nursery industry supplies about 1.1 million pathogen-free seedlings annually. (inset) Once healthy seedlings are planted in the field, the next step is to keep them free of the HLB disease by controlling the psyllid vector.

    Figure 1 (Below) Taiwan's citrus nursery industry supplies about 1.1 million pathogen-free seedlings annually. (inset) Once healthy seedlings are planted in the field, the next step is to keep them free of the HLB disease by controlling the psyllid vector.

  • Figure 2 Pot-grown foundation trees (below, left) and ground-planted scion trees (below, right) protected under stainless screenhouse at the Chiayi Branch, Agricultural Research Institute (ARI) of Taiwan, for the production of pathogen-free seedlings through micro-grafting.

    Figure 2 Pot-grown foundation trees (below, left) and ground-planted scion trees (below, right) protected under stainless screenhouse at the Chiayi Branch, Agricultural Research Institute (ARI) of Taiwan, for the production of pathogen-free seedlings through micro-grafting.

  • Figure 3 Removal of HLB-infected trees in Okinawa, Japan. (from left, clockwise) Trees are sprayed with pesticide to prevent HLB-positive psyllids from escaping; Infected trees are cut down; Stumps are treated with herbicide.

    Figure 3 Removal of HLB-infected trees in Okinawa, Japan. (from left, clockwise) Trees are sprayed with pesticide to prevent HLB-positive psyllids from escaping; Infected trees are cut down; Stumps are treated with herbicide.

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